Eating Better 2018 Report - Principles for eating meat and dairy more sustainably: the 'less and better' approach
Eating Better - a coalition of more than 50 organisations in the UK that is promoting to eat less and better meat and dairy - published a report on how and why to do so. We have the power to have a positive impact on our health and the planet by making conscious food choices. The 2018 report outlines and explains 8 simple principles to eat meat and dairy more sustainably. To learn more about how and why to eat less and better meat and dairy, see the report: https://www.eating-better.org/uploads/Documents/2018/better_meat_report_FINAL.pdf
Meat consumption per country and meat prices
ATKearney 2019 Report - How will cultured meat and meat alternatives disrupt the agricultural and food industry?
A number of meat alternatives are evolving, each with the potential to disrupt the multibillion-dollar global meat industry. To learn more, see the report.
International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (2019) - Towards a common food policy for the European Union
In the beginning of 2019 the International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food) published research and a blueprint for a common food policy for the European Union. http://www.ipes-food.org/pages/CommonFoodPolicy
It is recommended to promote sufficient, healthy and sustainable diets for all. Unhealthy diets are driving an obesity epidemic and an explosion of NCDs: the leading cause of death in Europe. Improving diets requires a range of policies to be realigned — from urban planning to food taxes and marketing rules — to build food environments in which the healthy option is the easiest. The EU must reform public procurement and VAT rules, and comprehensively restrict junk food marketing, in order to shift the incentives in favour of healthy and sustainable diets. Furthermore, the EU should require Member States to develop Healthy Diet Plans (covering public procurement, urban planning, fiscal and social policies, marketing, zoning & licensing and nutrition education) as a condition for unlocking CAP payments and exempt vegetables and fruits from VAT.
ING (2017) - The protein shift: Will Europeans change their diet?
ING published a report in 2017: 'The Protein Shift. Will Europeans change their diet?" 27% of Europeans expect to eat less meat in the next 5 years, leading to 3% less meat consumption. Health reasons are dominant. Policy options are discussed including taxing meat products. https://www.ing.nl/media/ING_EBZ_-the-protein-shift-will-Europeans-change-their-diet_tcm162-136110.pdf
Springmann et al. (2018) Health-motivated taxes on red and processed meat: A modelling study on optimal tax levels and associated health impacts. PLoS ONE 13(11): e0204139. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204139#sec011
Springmann et al. proposes a tax in rich countries of approximately 100% on the price of processed meat and approx. 16% on the price of red meat to minimize the health damage caused by eating too much processed and red meat. This tax can be introduced in 140 countries (a lower tax in poor countries) and would save more than 220,000 deaths per year and more than 40 billion US dollars in health costs per year. In the annex to the report, the effects of the introduction of a Health Tax on meat were examined for individual countries: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=info%3Adoi/10.1371/journal.pone.0204139.s001&type=supplementary
For the Netherlands for instance, a levy of 115% on processed meat and 27% on red meat would be necessary for an optimal health effect. This leads to a 25% lower consumption of processed meat and to 1680 fewer deaths in the year 2020, and 376 million euros less costs for health care related to meat consumption (430 million USD). The levies ensure an annual tax revenue in the Netherlands of 1.09 billion euros (0.75 USD for processed meat and 0.49 USD for red meat). As a result of the health tax, people will buy more non-taxed proteins such as chicken and milk. This is an improvement for health and the environment, as the climate impact of these products per kilo is much lower than that of beef, veal and pork. It is calculated that the health tax would decrease energy intake by an average of 23 kcal/day. This is due to a decrease of 24 kcal/d for processed meat, 6 kcal / d for red meat and 3 kcal / d for oils. On the other hand there is an increase in chicken, milk and eggs with resp. 6, 4 and 0.56 kcal/day
Alshahrani et al. (2019) Red and processed meat and mortality in a low meat intake population. Nutrients 11:622. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/3/622/pdf
A new study found that a combination of red and processed meat was associated with a 23% increase in all-cause mortality and 34% increase in cardiovasular disease mortality in US and Canadian adults.